Randori named leader in Attack Surface Management in GigaOm ASM Radar Report

March 28, 2023

Attack Surface Analysis: 2023 guide – Includes a Free Attack Surface Review

By: Randori Blog

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Did you know that cybercrime damages are expected to reach $10.5 trillion annually by 2025? With the average cost of a data breach now exceeding $4 million, organizations of all sizes need to stay protected against cyber threats. An attack surface analysis is one of the most effective ways to identify potential security risks and vulnerabilities. In this article, we’ll walk you through the latest tools and techniques to help you safeguard your systems, networks, and data.

What is an Attack Surface?

Your organization’s attack surface refers to all potential entry points that can be targeted to initiate a cyberattack or gain unlawful access to sensitive data. This includes all the security gaps that an attacker could exploit or circumvent, including social engineering attacks like phishing, spear phishing, and whaling.

In general, attack surfaces can be divided into two categories: physical and digital. Physical attack surfaces relate to the physical aspects of an organization, such as servers, data centers, devices, sensors, and other endpoints, as well as security door access, paper documents containing sensitive information, physical devices, and anything that a hacker can physically steal.

Digital attack surfaces, on the other hand, pertain to applications, ports, remote devices, and other endpoints that hackers can virtually use to enter an organization’s network. Common vulnerabilities of digital attack surfaces include poor password practices, lack of employee training on best security practices, unpatched software, lack of role-based access to sensitive information, liberal configuration settings, and more. It is important to minimize both the physical and digital attack surfaces to prevent potential attacks.

What is Attack Surface Analysis?

An attack surface analysis identifies and assesses potential vulnerabilities and weaknesses in your organization’s attack surface. It involves analyzing your organization’s digital assets, such as web applications, software, hardware, data centers, web servers, and mobile devices, to identify potential entry points for cyber-attacks. Think of it as a way to map out all the potential pathways or methods an attacker could exploit to penetrate your system’s defenses. By identifying these attack vectors, you can better understand your organization’s overall security posture and take steps to mitigate potential risks.

Why is Attack Surface Analysis Important?

An attack surface analysis can be the difference between being vulnerable to cyber-attacks and having a robust security posture. Here are some reasons why attack surface analysis is critical.

  1. An attack surface analysis helps you uncover hidden vulnerabilities and risks in your organization’s digital assets that cybercriminals could exploit.
  2. It helps you strengthen your organization’s overall security posture.
  3. An attack surface analysis can help you prioritize your security investments and resources by identifying high-risk areas requiring immediate, real-time attention. You can focus your efforts on critical assets and address them first.
  4. Many industries are subject to regulatory requirements that mandate specific security controls and countermeasures. Performing an attack surface analysis can help you comply with these requirements and avoid potential penalties or fines.

How to Perform an Attack Surface Analysis

Performing an attack surface analysis involves thoroughly evaluating your organization’s digital attack surface, potential entry points that an attacker could exploit, and developing mitigation strategies to reduce the attack surface. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to perform an attack surface analysis:

1. Define Your Attack Surface

The first step is identifying and defining your system’s entry points and weak spots. This involves looking at all the different parts of your system and thinking about all the different ways an attacker could try to get in. When you define your attack surface, consider the following:

  • The various typical routes that sensitive data could take when entering or leaving your organization.
  • Security measures are in place to safeguard these routes, such as resource connections, authentication, authorization, activity logging, data validation, and encoding.
  • All the essential data used within your organization, including confidential information like secrets and keys, intellectual property, critical business data, personal information, PII, and PHI.

The security controls put in place to protect this data include encryption, checksums, access controls, data integrity, and operational security controls.

2. Categorize Your Attack Surface

Once you have identified all the different entry points and weak spots, you need to categorize them based on their level of risk. This will help you prioritize your efforts in securing your system. Group each type of attack point by risk level, purpose, design, and technology. From there, you can count the number of each type and select cases to assess. This way, you don’t have to understand every single endpoint to clearly understand the system’s attack surface and potential risks. It’s a practical way to evaluate risks at scale and monitor changes in the application’s risk profile.

3. Prioritize Your Risks

Once you have categorized your attack surface, prioritize your risks based on the likelihood of an attack occurring and the potential damage it could cause. This will help you focus your efforts on the most vulnerable areas that need the most protection. Consider the ease with which an attacker could exploit a vulnerability, as well as the potential rewards they would gain from doing so. Also consider the impact an attack could have on your organization’s finances, reputation, and operations.

4. Develop Mitigation Strategies

Your organization’s attack surface is constantly changing, so it’s important to monitor and protect it regularly. Keep track of any changes to your system and assess how they impact your overall risk profile. Based on your risk priorities, develop mitigation and vulnerability management strategies to reduce your external attack surface. This could include adding extra security controls, patching software vulnerabilities, or training users to be more security-conscious. Have an attack surface monitoring system, whether manual or automated, that can quickly detect vulnerabilities before attackers can exploit them.


Performing an attack surface analysis is necessary to enhance the security of your organization’s digital assets. Following the steps outlined above, you can effectively identify potential vulnerabilities and reduce the risk of a successful cyberattack. However, conducting an attack surface analysis can be complex and time-consuming, and you may want to seek professional assistance. Fortunately, experts like Randori offer continuous attack surface management solutions to address any vulnerabilities in your system.

Our services at Randori include risk assessments, vulnerability scans, penetration testing, and red teaming. You can even start by taking advantage of our free attack surface review. This will provide you with valuable insights into your organization’s attack surface. Randori brings cutting-edge technology and a personalized approach to helping you secure your company’s digital assets and protect your business from cyber threats.

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